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Dmitri Shostakovich belongs to the generation of composers trained principally after the Communist Revolution of 1917.
He graduated from the St. Petersburg Conservatory as a pianist and composer, his First Symphony winning immediate favor.
His subsequent career in Russia varied with the political climate.
The initial success of his opera Lady MacBeth of Mtsensk District, based on Leskov, and later revised as Katerina Ismailova, was followed by official condemnation, emanating apparently from Stalin himself.
The composer's Fifth Symphony, in 1937, brought partial rehabilitation, while the war years offered a propaganda coup in the Leningrad Symphony, performed in the city under German siege.
Outwardly and inevitably conforming to official policy, posthumous information suggests that Shostakovich remained very critical of Stalinist dictates, particularly with regard to music and the arts.
He occupies a significant position in the 20th century as a symphonist and as a composer of chamber music, writing in a style that is sometimes spare in texture but always accessible, couched as it is in an extension of traditional tonal musical language.
Shostakovich died of lung cancer on August 9, 1975 and after a civic funeral was interred in the Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow.
The official obituary did not appear in Pravda until three days after his death, apparently because the wording had to be approved at the highest level, by Brezhnev and the rest of the Politburo.
The fifteen symphonies of Shostakovich range in scope from the First Symphony of 1925, a graduation composition, to the embittered Thirteenth using Yevtushenko's poems.
The Fourteenth, which contains settings of various poems came two years before the Fifteenth and last symphony of 1971.
The Fifth Symphony, the immediate post-war Ninth and the Tenth of 1953 are most often heard, while ns. 2 and 3, with ns. 11 and 12, have more overtly patriotic suggestions about them.
Shostakovich arranged concert suites from many of his film and theatre scores.
Shostakovich wrote an early concerto for piano, trumpet and strings, and a second piano concerto, a vehicle for his son Maxim, in 1957.
He wrote two violin concertos and two cello concertos. Choral works by Shostakovich include The Execution of Stepan Razin, a setting of a text by Yevtushenko.
His solo songs are generally less overtly political, evidence of a private rather than public voice.
The fifteen String Quartets by Shostakovich form a remarkable body of work, lucid in texture, often moving in musical content.
The intensely felt Viola Sonata of 1975 is the third of his duo sonatas, preceded by the 1934 Cello Sonata and the Violin Sonata of 1968.
To these may be added the second Piano Trio and a G minor Piano Quintet, written in 1944.
The piano music of Shostakovich includes, in addition to two piano sonatas, an ingenious set of Twenty-four Preludes and Fugues, as well as an earlier set of Twenty-four Preludes.