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Classical musical terms



c first tone of the c scale
c clef a clef that indicates which line represents c on a staff, as opposed to a 'g clef', or an 'f clef'
c.a abbr. for col arco (with bow)
c.b abbr. for col basso
cabaletta short operatic song in the popular style
cabalistic numerological symbolism a method of imbedding hidden messages in music, by using a code of numbers based on which notes are used, their durations, arrangement, subdivision, etc; whereby the composer made symbolic reference to specific persons, places, or things and/or events in some way associated with the music
cabocla type of Brazilian folk music
caccia the hunt
cacharpaya fast round from Andean region, or dance performed at festivals
cachucha Spanish dance in 3, similar to bolero
cacophony a discordant or dissonant sound
cadence the melodic or harmonic ending of a piece, or the sections or phrases within a piece. A chord progression that gives a feeling of resolution, or conclusion
cadenza an extended solo passage, usually near the end of a piece, improvised by the performer, or sometimes written out by the composer
cadenzato rhythmical
caisse drum
calando an instruction to a player that the music should lessen in volume or tempo
calcando rushing, pushing the beat
calliope an instrument sounded by blowing steam through whistles
calma, -ando tranquil
calmato calmed
calore warmth
calypso rhythmic Caribbean popular music, often satirical or humorous. traditionally sung to the guitar, but now often played by a steel band
cambia score direction to retune or grab a different instrument
cambiare a musical instruction indicating some kind of orchestral change, such as using a new instrument
cambiata in counterpoint, a non harmonic tone inserted between a dissonance and its resolution.
camera secular chamber music, as opposed to church music, or chiesa
camerata small art or music schools dating from the 16th century
camminando walking tempo
campana bell used in orchestra
campanello small bell
campanology study of bell ringing or bells
canarie/canario 17th century French dance
can-can a lively dance involving high kicking by a line of women. originating in Paris in the 1830s, it was used by Offenbach in the 1850s in his operetta Orpheus in the underworld and earned the reputation of being quite daring
cancel a natural sign, used to remove a previously applied accidental
cancion song
cancionero collection of Spanish folk songs
cancrizans used to indicate the order in which notes should be read. for example, when a voice repeats a melody, the last note then becomes the starting point. the voice works back through the melody to the first note. essentially, the last note becomes the first and the first note becomes the last
canon rigid contrapuntal form in which each voice is an exact copy of each other
canonic treatment in the canonic style
cantabile in singing fashion or style
cantando singing
cantare to sing
cantata is generally a choral work of some length that also uses solo voices, usually with instrumental accompaniment. the texts used may be sacred or secular. some cantatas use solo voices without chorus or choir
cantato sung
canticle sacred hymn or song. free verse musical settings from the bible
cantiga 13th century Spanish song, usually to honor the virgin
cantilena lyrical vocal melody
cantillation unaccompanied chanting in free rhythm. used in particular to describe Jewish liturgical chanting
cantino the highest string of a lute or viol
cantio sacra motet
cantique canticle
canto song or melody. the term col canto instructs the accompanist to follow the soloist's tempo (time)
canto fermo a cantus firmus
cantor the name used to denote the person leading the singing or chanting in Jewish and early Christian worship. cantor, kantor in German, also denotes the director of music in a German protestant church. Bach, for example, was kantor at St. Thomaskirche in Leipzig
cantus firmus a melody that becomes the anchor of a polyphonic piece
cantus firmus fixed melody. this usually describes a melody borrowed from another source and used as the basis of the work, with other melodies being set in counterpoint against it. this was very common during the 14th and 17-centuries
cantus planus plainchant
canzona  song, or ballad, or "in the style of a song"
canzonet a light, simple song for one or more voices
caoine dirge, keen
capella choir, orchestra, or chapel
capellmeister kapellmeister
capo lit. the head, the beginning
capotasto an appliance clamped across the fingerboard of a stringed instrument to sharpen the entire instrument. abbr. capo
cappella meaning chapel, is found particularly in the phrase 'a cappella' for unaccompanied choral singing. the words chapel, cappella and kapelle, indicate a musical establishment rather than a place, as in the English chapel royal, the musicians of the monarch. the spelling capella may also be found
capriccio French term applied to a light, lively, humorous piece of music, particularly to a 17th-century work for the keyboard. it is generally used to refer to the mood of the performer rather than to the specific type of music
carillon set of bells, usually in a church tower, on which a tune is played, either manually or mechanically
carol a song of joy, praise, or emotion. (usually religious in nature)
carrure the construction of music, especially dances, in phrase with measures of exponents of 2 (e.g. 4,8)
cassa drum
cassation the word 'cassation' is of disputed origin and was used principally in the third quarter of the 18th century in south Germany to describe a piece of music akin to a divertimento or serenade, music intended primarily for entertainment. Mozart uses the word to describe three of his own serenades
castanets a percussion instrument, consisting of two hollowed-out wooden shells, which are played by clicking them together with the fingers. used by Spanish dancers. When used in an orchestra, castanets are usually mounted on a small stick to they can be shaken together more easily
castrato a male singer who was castrated before puberty so that he developed a powerful soprano or contralto voice. Castrati were popular in Italian churches in the 17th and 18th centuries and became important in Italian operas; many roles were written especially for them. nowadays, roles originally intended for castrati are sung by women
catch a type of round for unaccompanied voices, usually with humorous lyrics. Each participant sings the same melody but begins at different times
cauda the vertical dash attached to certain notes or ligatures in mensural notation
cavatina short simple song usually not having repeat
cedez a musical direction which indicates that the tempo should be diminished. It usually implies that a return to the previous tempo will follow shortly
celere quick
celesta a small keyboard instrument developed in the later 19th century and using hammers that strike metal bars to give a ringing sound. Tchaikovsky used the celesta, then a new instrument, in his dance of the sugar-plum fairy in his Nutcracker ballet.
cello short for violin cello, the second lowest instrument of the violin family; tuned an octave below a viola
celtic harp a small harp without pedals, which may be played with it resting on the knee. also known as the minstrel harp, or troubadour harp
cembalo harpsichord
centitone one one/hundredth of a half step
cento an opus composed of selections from other works
cents 1/100 of a half-step
cercar la nota vocal technique in which the following note is anticipated
cervelas racket or sausage bassoon
cetera zither or cittern
chace French 14th century canon style
chaconne is in origin a dance popular in Spain in the early 17th century. it came to signify a form in which there are a series of variations over a short repeated bass or chordal pattern. famous examples of the form are found in Bach's chaconne for unaccompanied violin in his d minor partite or the earlier chacony in g minor by Henry Purcell
chalumeau a simple woodwind instrument with 6 to 8 holes. it was a forerunner of the clarinet. also refers to the lowest register of the clarinet
chamber music music written to be performed by one player to a part-such as trios, quartets, and quintets. the string quartet is the principal form of chamber music
chamber opera an opera of intimate character which usually employs a small orchestra of about 25 players
chamber orchestra a chamber orchestra has come to indicate an orchestra smaller in size than the usual symphony orchestra
chamber symphony a small-scale symphony which is performed by only a few player
chance music see aleatory music
change ringing the ringing of bells in systematic order
changed note a evice, known in Italian as nota cambiata, by which a non-harmonic note is used in strict counterpoint on an accented beat
change ringing the ringing of a peal of church bells in a methodical sequence by teams of ringers, each member has a single bell which is pulled by a rope. With 12 bells, the number of variations can amount to nearly 480 million
chanson a French song. the word is used to indicate songs from the troubadour compositions of the middle ages to the art-songs of the 19th and 20th centuries
chant a simple type of harmonized melody or type of medieval church music
chanter a pipe in a set of bagpipes containing sound holes, on which melodies are played
chanterelle highest string
chantey work songs sung by sailors
chapel signifies, in the ordinary sense, a place of worship. In music it may be used to indicate a group of musicians employed by the church or by the court, as in the English chapel royal, the group of musicians employed by the English monarch, or, in later continental terminology, any musical establishment
chapel master the director of music in a church
character piece instrumental piece composed to express a very definite feeling
characteristic note leading note
characteristic piece a musical piece representing a particular mood, place, or person. often using in describing piano solo's
charango south American small guitar with 5 double strings. the body was traditionally made from an armadillo shell, though it was occasionally made from wood. it is commonly used in folk music, where it is played by strumming with the fingers across its strings
charivari deliberately distorted and noisy performance, shivaree (American), katzenmusic (German), or scampata (Italian)
charleston type of foxtrot
chasse hunt
chef d'orchestre conductor. Person who directs a musical performance
chelys lyre
cheng Chinese harmonica
chest of viols a set of viols-usually 6 of them-in various sizes. Called this because in the 16th and 17th centuries, viols were often stored together in a chest. Composers often wrote for them all as an ensemble
chest voice the lowest register of the voice, which the singer feels to be coming from the chest (as opposed to head voice). tenors use this to make high notes
chevalet bridge (instrumental)
cheville peg
chevrotement unsteady singing
chiaramente clearly
chiave clef
chiesa designed for use in church
chiesa "church" church music, as opposed to chamber music, or camera
chimes tubular bells. also used for carillon, glockenspiel, or other bells
chinese block hollow wooden block used as percussion instrument
ching Korean gong
chironomy a term for neumatic signs lacking pitch indication
chispa air similar to the bambuco, using alternating groups of three and four
chitarra guitar
chitarra name used for a guitar
chitarrone long-necked lute, or archlute, with extra bass strings. used particularly to accompany solo singing, popular in the 16th and 17th-centuries
chiuso term used to describe horn notes, when they are 'stopped' or 'closed' by placing the hand in the bell (the open end of the horn)
choir a choir is a group of singers. The word is generally used to indicate such a group in a church, or the part of the church in which such a group is normally placed
choir organ a small organ or manual used to accompany a choir
choral society glee club, community chorus
choral symphony a symphony using a chorus, or a symphonic work written for voices
chorale a chorale is a German Lutheran hymn-tune, a number of which were composed or arranged by Luther himself and adapted in later centuries to various harmonies, the most famous of all by Johann Sebastian Bach. The word is also used in America to signify a choir or chorus
chorale prelude an introduction to a chorale, was developed in 17th century Germany as an organ composition based on a chorale melody. the form is found in the later 17th century in the work of buxtehude and in the early 18th century most notably in the 45 chorale preludes of Johann Sebastian Bach.
choralmotette choral motet
chord a chord is the simultaneous sounding of two or more notes. the adjective is chordal. The study of harmony involves the correct placing of chords with relation to each other
chordal a form of music in which a single melody is accompanied by sets of chords, rather than a competing counter melody
chordal style consisting of a series of chords
chordophone describes a type of instrument in which the sound is produced by a vibrating string. common examples include a guitar, harp and violin.
choreography the art of arranging a dance. this is particularly used in ballet
chorister boy choir member
chorlied song for choir, usually unaccompanied
chorus a group singing together, more than one to a part, as opposed to soloists. also used to describe the refrain of a song
chroai  micro tonic modifications of the two movable tones of the tetra chor
chromatic motion by half steps; or pitches used outside of the diatonic scale in which they normally occur
chromatic scale scale of half steps (c, c#, d, d#, e, f, f#, etc.)
chronos  the temporal unit of ancient Greek music
church cantata a choral work written for performance during a church service
chyn seven-stringed instrument of Chinese origin, made of hollowed piece of wood
cimbalom a large Hungarian concert dulcimer, used in cafe, concert, and folk music
cimbasso  a term used by the composers Verdi and Bellinin to describe the lowest brass instrument in an operatic score. In most modern performances, this is a tuba
cinelli  cymbals
circle of fifths sequence of key signatures arranged in ascending fifths
cistre lute or guitar
cither a plucked wire-strung instrument with a pear-shaped body and a flat back. it was commonly used between the 16th and 18th-centuries
cithern a plucked wire-strung instrument with a pear-shaped body and a flat back. it was commonly used between the 16th and 18th-centuries
citole a plucked wire-strung instrument with a pear-shaped body and a flat back. it was commonly used between the 16th and 18th-centuries
clairon bugle
claque members of the audience, usually in an opera house, who are hired by a performer to show enthusiasm by clapping and calling for encores.
clarabella an organ stop with a flute-like tone
claribel an organ stop with a flute-like tone
clarinet a woodwind instrument with a wooden body and a single reed. it has been in use since the mid 18th-century. It forms part of the symphony orchestra, the military band, and the dance band and is also used as a solo instrument in chamber music
clarino  was the word often used in the 17th and 18th centuries for trumpet. now the word describes the upper register of the trumpet, much used in the baroque period, when the trumpet, lacking valves, could only produce successive notes in the highest register, an art that later fell into temporary disuse
clarion small trumpet
clarone bass clarinet
clarsech Gaelic harp
classical music that has a permanent quality and is not merely popular or light
  describe the music of the classical period, estimated between 1750 and 1820, as personified by Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven;
classical era the musical period from the late 1700s to the mid 1820s, characterized by more rigidly defined musical forms, increased attention to instrumental music, and the evolution of the symphony
clavecin harpsichord
claves a pair of wooden sticks that are struck together to set the rhythm of Latin-American dance music
clavicembalo  literally means a 'keyed dulcimer' and is used to denote a harpsichord. usually abbreviated to cembalo
clavichord soft-toned keyboard instrument with strings, which are hit by metal 'tangents'. popular as a solo instrument from the 16th to 18th-centuries and revived today only for the performance of early music
clavier usually refers to a clavichord, but can refer to any keyboard instrument. its original meaning was 'keyboard'.
clef the symbol used at the beginning of a staff to indicate which lines and spaces represent which notes. in modern practice, only three clefs are commonly used, the 'g clef' or treble clef, the 'f clef' or bass clef, and the 'c clef', when used as an alto clef.
clinician lecturer, course director (a "clinic" is a group of medical patients)
cloche bell
close harmony a style of harmonizing in which all the supporting harmonizing notes lie near the melody
close cadence
cluster a group of adjacent notes on the piano keyboard, which are played together
coda concluding section of a movement or work, added as a way of rounding it off. often brief, but sometimes extended and elaborate
codetta small coda, or short transition to a new section
col arco with the bow, following pizzicato
col canto instruction to the the accompanist to follow the soloist's tempo (time)
col legno striking the string of a violin with the stick
col with
colla parte with the part
colla voce with the voice
collegium musicum association of amateurs for serious music. Now mostly found at universities
coloratura  originally signifying coloring, the word coloratura is generally used to describe vocal music that is extensively ornamented and calls for ability in a very high register. A typical part for a coloratura soprano is that of the queen of the night in Mozart's opera the magic flute (die Zauberflote)
combination note the sound produced when two loud notes are sounded together, which is not the same as the sound produced when either of them is sounded separately. sometimes known as the resultant tone
come like
comic opera an opera with light-natured music, comedy, and a happy ending. in contrast to grand opera
comma, schisma small pitch differential between supposedly identical intervals obtained through different combinations
commedia del arte a style of stage presentation developed in Italy around 1500
commodamente see commodo or comodo
commodo  comfortable; convenient
common chord a chord composed of a root, third, and fifth
common meter the meter of a four-line stanza with eight, six, eight, and six syllables per line. This is the meter commonly found in the four-line hymn verse. also referred to as a ballad meter
common time another name for 4/4 time, in which there are four quarter notes to the bar
common tone a note that remains the same between two different chords
community chorus choral society, though there are differences everywhere among the various terms for choral organizations
comodo at a moderate speed
compass the range of notes available to a voice or instrument, from the highest to the lowest. with brass, wind, or stringed instruments, the lowest note is fixed and the higher notes depend on the skill of the musician. for voices, the normal compass is about two octaves, through it is possible to extend this through training
complex time asymmetric meter, sometimes called composite meter - meter such as 7/8 that mixes simple and compound pulses
composite meter more often called asymmetric meter. complex time - meter such as 7/8 that mixes simple and compound pulses
composition the art of composing an original work of music. The resulting piece of music is also known as a composition
compound binary sonata form
compound interval an interval greater than an octave, such as a ninth, or eleventh
compound meter a meter with more than six beats per measure, and containing two or more accented beats
compound stop on organ, a mixture stop
compound time music that has a meter not classifiable as simple time, which has a beat divisible by two. Compound meters are simple meters multiplied by three, such as 6/8, 6/4, and 6/2. The time signatures must be divisible by three (but not be three itself)
comprimaria a female singer with a supporting role in Italian opera. Comprimario is the male equivalent
comprimario a male singer with a supporting role in Italian opera. Comprimaria is the female equivalent
con amore an instruction to the player of an instrument meaning 'with love' or 'lovingly'
con brio an instruction to the player meaning 'with spirit'
con moto with motion
concert a musical performance in front of an audience. It is usually given by several performers, opposed to an event in which only one or two performers are involved, which is generally called a recital
concert band a band, consisting of woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments, as well as double bass and saxophone. in Europe, often called a wind band or symphonic wind ensemble
concert grand largest size of piano
concert pitch international standard where a is 440 hertz
concertant(e) part in a piece of music is a part that calls for some element of solo performance, as in a classical concerto. The word is found in the phrase sinfonia concertante, which is used to indicate an orchestral composition with two or more solo instruments, a title used from the late 18th century onwards
concertato in a concerted form, which means that the music is performed by several people, all of whom are on essentially equal terms. the term is commonly used in baroque music
concertina a small, hexagonal-shaped instrument with bellows, similar to the accordion, but without a piano-like keyboard. Instead, it has only studs, operated by the fingers, which produce only a relatively small number of notes. Concertinas were popular in the 19th-century but have now been virtually replaced by the accordion
concertino The concertino is the small group of solo instruments used in a concerto grosso in contrast to the whole body of the orchestra, consisting of ripieno players (see concerto grosso). a concertino may also be a small concerto (see concerto)
concertmaster orchestra leader, or just "leader"; as a verb, the orchestra is "led by so-and-so," meaning that so-and-so is what Americans would describe as a concertmaster or concertmistress. "concertmaster" can refer to a male or a female
concert-meister the principal violinist in an orchestra
concertmistress orchestra leader, or just "leader"; as a verb, the orchestra is "led by so-and-so," meaning that so-and-so is what Americans would describe as a concertmaster or concertmistress. "concertmaster" can refer to a male or a female
concerto a piece of instrumental music that contrasts a solo instrument or a small group of solo instruments with the main body of the orchestra. in the earlier 17th century the word had a more general significance, but in the early 18th century it came to mean primarily a work as described above
concerto grosso usually used to refer to 17th and 18th century orchestral works in which there is an interplay between the solo troupe of concertino players and the main orchestra, or ripieno
concitato  agitated
concord a chord, or combination of notes, which seems to be complete in itself and in total harmony. the opposite of discord
conduct to direct the performance of a group of musicians, with motions of the hands or with a baton. the conductor beats time, gives the musicians their cue so that they enter at the right moment, and generally ensures the musicians play together as a group. he or she also decides changes of tempo, the balance of sound, and the emotional emphasis
conductor musical director of orchestra or chorus
conductor's part an orchestral score that has been reduced to only a few staves
conductus a type of medieval song with Latin verses on a secular or religious theme
conga a long drum played with the fingers and hands, which originated in Latin-American bands and was introduced into the percussion section of the post 1950's orchestra
conjunct successive degrees of the scale
consecutive interval the progression of like harmonic intervals in a composition. for example, c played with the e above, followed by f played with the a above, gives two identical intervals of a third
consequent a phrase resolving the previous phrase, an answer
conservatoire a school for musicians. the term comes from the Italian word conservatorio meaning an orphanage where children received an education, including music. the equivalent in English is conservatory. the German equivalent, conservatorium, is also sometimes used in Australia
conservatorium a school for musicians
console the "desk" part of the organ which contains all those parts of the instrument that are at the organist's command, such as the pistons, manuals, pedals, and stops, but not the pipes
consonance sounds that are in agreement in terms of physical generation of sound; i.e. sounds found in the harmonic series of a pitch being harmonized, in contrast to dissonance
consort song modern term used to describe the type of English song from the 16th and 17th-centuries accompanied by a consort-usually of viols. it was sung by one or more voices
consort instrumental chamber ensembles, or music composed for said
contano rest
continental fingering the system now adopted all over the world, which indicates which fingers are to be used for which notes. The thumb is indicated as 1 and the fingers as 2 through 5
continuo abbreviation for basso continuo, which means a continuous bass. it describes a type of accompaniment prevalent in the 17th and early 18th-centures, usually played on a keyboard instrument. the player worked out the correct harmonies from the bass notes
contra against. as a prefix, means an octave below, e.g., contrabassoon
contrabasso refers to the double bass, which is the lowest pitched of bowed stringed instruments
contrafagotto contrabassoon
contralto female alto singer, referred to as an alto or a contralto
contrapuntal composed according to rules of counterpoint
contrary motion parts moving in opposing directions in pitch
contratenor originally the third voice part, added to the cantus/discantus pairing
contredanse a dance in which couples face each other
coperti used to indicate that a drum is muted with a cloth
coperto covered, muffled. a vocal technique
copla couplet
cor horn
cor anglais English horn. this is not a horn at all, but a woodwind instrument belonging to the oboe family
cor de chasses hunting horn
coranto courante
corda string Used in instructions to piano players. una corda, "one string" is an instruction to play with the soft pedal. tre corde "three strings" and tutte le corde, "all the strings", cancel this instruction.
corista tuning fork
cornemuse type of bagpipe
cornet a wind instrument made of brass. it has a cup-shaped mouthpiece and three valves. it looks like a short, squat trumpet but is easier to play and has a softer sound. it is used mainly in brass and military bands
cornetto a wind instrument made of wood or ivory, or nowadays reproduced in fibre-glass. it has a cup-shaped mouthpiece, like brass instruments, but finger-holes, like a recorder, and was much used in the 17th and earlier 18th centuries, often to support or even replace treble voices. the bass of the cornetto family is the serpent, once found in village church bands in England and now revived
corno horn
corno di bassetto bassett horn, an instrument similar to the clarinet but lower in pitch. it was used by Mozart in his requiem
corno inglese English horn
cornopean an early type of cornet. also used to denote an organ stop, with a soft but trumpet like sound
cornu ancient roman horn
coro chorus
corona pause, hold. see fermata
coronach funeral dirge of Scotland
corrente courante
corrido a Mexican folk idiom derived from the romanza
cortege solemn march
cotillon 18th/19th century dance led by a couple, and followed by the other couples
coule appogiatura styled ornament
coulisse the sliding part of a slide instrument
count beat or rhythmic pulse
counter part played against another
counterexposition the second exposition, as in a fugue
counterfugue fugue in which the melodic answer is the first subject inverted
countermelody less important melody that can be played along with the main melody
counterpoint refers to the art of combining two or more melodies, so that when they are played together, they form a a harmonious whole
countertenor a tenor that has an unusually high vocal range
country dance a kind of social, or village, dance which originated in England and was taken to France and Germany
coup d'archet bow stroke
coup de glotte a method of singing that uses the two membranes above natural vocal chords
coup de langue tonguing, pertinent to wind instruments
coupler a device connecting pedals or manuals of an organ, so that when one is played, the other plays as well
couplet two lines (usually rhyming)
courante a dance in triple time, which occurs in the baroque suite
course a group of strings tuned in unisons or octaves, used to augment the volume
course director clinician
covered fifths see hidden fifths
cow bells clapper less bells similar to those worn by cows in Europe. Struck with a drumstick
crab canon a counterpoint piece in which one part is identical to another, but backwards
crash cymbal single suspended cymbal struck with a drumstick
credo  "I believe". In the mass, the third part of the ordinary. the creed
crescendo gradually increasing in volume or intensity
crescent a Turkish instrument made by stringing small bells in a crescent shape
croisez indication to cross the hands in piano playing
crook the detachable part of the tube on wind instruments such as horns and trumpets. it is made in different sizes to give a different basic key to the instrument. today valves are generally used instead
croon a soft, low singing or humming. lullabies are crooned. crooning into a microphone, often accompanied by a dance band, was popular between 1920 and 1950
crooning a style of soft singing made possible by the invention of the microphone
cross fingering complicated fingering on wind instruments in which holes are alternately open and closed. the keys on modern instruments have rendered cross-fingering obsolete
cross relation a chord progression in which a note in the preceding chord is altered chromatically, and then appears in another part of the succeeding chord
cross rhythm simultaneous use of different rhythmic patterns, or different accents
crotal a type of small bell, such as a sleigh bell
crotale the modern name for the ancient, or antique, cymbal. this orchestral percussion instrument differs from the standard cymbal in that it is tuned to a definite pitch and has a more delicate tone
crotchet a note with a quarter the time value of a semi breve, or whole note. This is known as a quarter note
crumhorn a wind instrument, hook shaped and with a double reed, played in the 16th and 17th-centuries. there are at least six sizes, each playing a different range
csardas Hungarian dance, with two alternating sections, one slow and sad, the other fast and fiery
cuckoo a toy instrument used in music written specifically for toy instruments. the best known of these is the toy symphony
cue a short passage from another part printed in small notes to assist with entrances
cueca Chilean dance
cuivre used as a direction to players, instructing them to use a forced, ringing tone
cut time a time signature indicating two counts in each measure (2/2, time signature), the half note gets one count
cycle refers to any set of musical works-often songs-which are intended to be performed together as a group and are usually linked by a common musical idea or theme
cyclic term for a musical form made up of several contrasting forms
cymbal percussion instrument consisting of a metal plate which is struck with a beater or clashed against another cymbal. a standard cymbal has no definite pitch, but some sound higher than others. two cymbals mounted face-to-face on a rod and struck with a side-drum stick are known as choke cymbals

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